Moretti, in making the glass museum for the Ara Pacis at Mussolini's command, guessed that the two consuls (Tiberius and Varus) of 13 flank Augustus, so he saw this figure as M. Valerius Messalla. The fragmentary "Lupercal Panel" apparently preserves the moment when Romulus and Remus were discovered by Faustulus the shepherd, while Mars looks on. L' Ara Pacis Augustae (Altare della pace di Augusto) è un altare fatto costruire da Augusto nel 9 a.C. alla Pace nell'accezione di divinità. The Ara Pacis Augustae (Latin, "Altar of Augustan Peace"; commonly shortened to Ara Pacis) is an altar in Rome dedicated to Pax, the Roman goddess of Peace. The last portion of the North Frieze consists of members of the imperial family. [55], Coordinates: 41°54′23″N 12°28′32″E / 41.90639°N 12.47556°E / 41.90639; 12.47556, The first protective building housing the monument by architect Morpurgo, The new protective building housing the monument by architect Meier, The first protective building housing the monument by architect, The new protective building housing the monument by architect. In 1907, Sieveking proposed that this figure was Lepidus, the Pontifex Maximus in 13 BC. [38] He correctly determined that the two-year-old child could be only Germanicus, whose exact birth on 24 May 15 BC is known. John Pollini, The Portraiture of Gaius and Lucius Caesar, (1987), 24–26. The altar came to represent Pax (Peace), a concept particularly forwarded during the reign of Augustus and it was probably for this reason that the Ara Pacis appeared on the coins of Nero between 64 and 67 CE. [42] However, there are some dissenters from this theory. In 1926, Loewy compared the Ara Pacis Agrippa to the Louvre Agrippa and the Agrippa in Copenhagen (and elsewhere) in order to demonstrate the iconographical similarity. Moretti canonized that Gaius was dressed in a "Trojan" costume for the equestrian boys event called the Troy Game, which was held in 13 or possibly 11 BC for the dedication of the Theater of Marcellus. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. is also the right size, and therefore a better guess. On the north side are officials such as magistrates, senators, priests and their families. This led to a great number of complaints from locals, starting a long series of arguments and criticisms of the Ara Pacis project. [40] As this campaign is known to have begun in 2 BC,[41] it means that Gnaeus must have been of mature age by that time, therefore requiring a birth year of at least 17 BC, which would, in turn, make him sufficiently old to be the boy on the Ara Pacis. The program of the Ara Pacis addressed this group's very real fears of cyclical history, and promised that the rule of Augustus would avert the cataclysmic destruction of the world predicted by contemporary models of historical thought. "Ara Pacis Augustae." One member of this college is missing in a gap. [37] A. von Domaszewski amended this family identification and correctly saw the child as Germanicus. South Side, Ara Pacisby Steven Zucker (CC BY-NC-SA). Today Augustus is better recognized by his hair style than his face. This interpretation, although widely accepted, can not be proved correct, as so little of the original panel survives. In the 1920s as more and more scholars decided the scene dates to 13 BC, Loewy proposed that Lucius was too young to be this boy. Die Frauendarstellung auf der Ara Pacis Augustae unter besonderer Berücksichtigung... Der Altar Des Kaiserfriedens Ara Pacis Augustae. Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. After them follows the collegium of the quindecimviri sacris faciundis, also identified by the incense box carried by a public slave among them. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 13 Oct 2013. Originally located on the northern outskirts of Rome, a Roman mile from the boundary of the pomerium on the west side of the Via Flaminia, the Ara Pacis stood in the northeaste… Gaius Stern, "Women Children and Senators on the Ara Pacis Augustae" Berk. Ryberg's 1949 article gave further weight to that conclusion. In 1938 a monument, later known as the Museo dell’Ara Pacis, was raised beside the Tiber to house the reconstituted edifice. The boy is clearly not a Roman, given his clothing, lack of bulla, and hair style. 2006, chapter 8; Bridget Buxton also employed these identifications (on Stern's advice) in an earlier study "Rome at the Crossroads" (Berk. Retrieved from Ara Pacis Augustae. What remains of the altar is otherwise fragmentary, but it appears to have been largely functional with less emphasis on art and decoration. Cartwright, Mark. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The whole structure, including the reliefs, would have been richly painted and have had touches of gilding. Charles Brian Rose wrote "The variable value of the Eastern costume and the uneasy interaction of Trojan and Parthian iconography can make it difficult to determine whether one is viewing the founders of the Romans or their fiercest opponents", in "The Parthians in Augustan Rome,", pile of weapons confiscated from the enemy, "Scheda 6 FORMAZIONE DELLA CITTA' INDUSTRIALE XIX secolo", "I just don't get modern art, says Italy's culture minister", Riferimenti diretti all'Ara Pacis Augustae nelle fonti letterarie e iconografiche antiche. The new cover building, which has been named "Ara Pacis museum", now stands on the same site as Mussolini's structure. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The monument consists of a traditional open-air altar at its centre surrounded by precinct walls which are pierced on the eastern and western ends (so called today because of the modern layout) by openings and elaborately and finely sculpted entirely in Luna marble. Updates? [18] This theory has won over many scholars, despite considerable initial resistance.[19]. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Julia also better personified Augustus' new pro-natalism program, having already given birth to four surviving children (and was pregnant with a fifth). The Ara Pacis Augustae or Altar of the Augustan Peace in Rome was built to celebrate the return of Augustus in 13 BCE from his campaigns in Spain and Gaul. [11] Peter Holliday[12] suggested that the Altar's imagery of the Golden Age, usually discussed as mere poetic allusion, appealed to a significant component of the Roman populace. [3] This new structure is much bigger than the previous one and it is divided into multiple rooms and sections besides the main one containing the altar. The monument was commissioned by the Roman Senate on July 4, 13 BC to honour the return of Augustus to Rome after three years in Hispania and Gaul[1][2] and consecrated on January 30, 9 BC. 2003). The best guess is that he is a Germanic tribal prince, but he is certainly not a dressed as a Trojan. [39], In relation to the Domitii Ahenobarbi, von Domaszewski also proposed in the same 1903 article that the last family on the South Wall is that of the father of the emperor Nero (born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus). In February 1937, the Italian Cabinet decreed that for the 2000th anniversary of the birth of Augustus, the excavations should recommence, using the most advanced technology. The hundreds of altar fragments, which had been dispersed across several European museums, were collected together and the altar reassembled. This article was most recently revised and updated by,, Ancient History Encyclopedia - Ara Pacis Augustae. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. The dedication was recorded in Ovid’s Fasti as well as by Augustus himself in his “Res Gestae Divi Augusti” (“Achievements of the Divine Augustus”). The East Wall contains a badly preserved scene of a female warrior (bellatrix), possibly Roma, apparently sitting on a pile of weapons confiscated from the enemy, thus forcing peace upon them by rendering them unable to make war. Related Content Many scholars continue to see the Julia figure as Livia, having reasoned that Livia has to be on the Ara Pacis. Many others have contributed to disprove Petersen's theory.[46]. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. So ingrained was Petersen's theory, however, that when the distinguished scholar Erika Simon (1968, 18) suggested the boy is a barbarian, she was subjected to intense criticism until she retracted. The historic Fascist style building around the Altar, locally known as "teca del Morpurgo", was pulled down in 2006, and replaced by a glass and steel structure in modern style, designed by architect Richard Meier. diss. [27] A foreign prince would not wear a bulla. On the eastern wall, panels depicted the seated figures of Roma and Pax, while the western side depicts the discovery of the twins and she-wolf and the sacrifice of a figure traditionally identified as Aeneas, but increasingly believed to be Rome's second king, Numa Pompilius. Some half dozen figures are recognizable from looking at other surviving statues of members of the imperial family. Web. The Ara Pacis is seen to embody without conscious effort the deep-rooted ideological connections among cosmic sovereignty, military force, and fertility that were first outlined by Georges Dumézil,[9][10] connections which are attested in early Roman culture and more broadly in the substructure of Indo-European culture at large. The upper register of the northern and southern walls depict scenes of the emperor, his family, and members of the regime in the act of processing to or performing a sacrifice. The sculpture of the Ara Pacis is primarily symbolic rather than decorative, and its iconography has several levels of significance. Gerhard Koeppel, “Die historischen Reliefs der römischen Kaiserzeit V: Gaius Stern, "Women Children and Senators on the Ara Pacis Augustae" Berk. Pollini provides the best summary of this viewpoint in his article, "Ahenobarbi, Appuleii and Some Others on the Ara Pacis", where he points out that the writer Suetonius specifically mentions that Nero's father went "to the East on the staff of the young Gaius Caesar". He also suggested that the Ara Pacis is arranged in family groups. Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. When the monument was being reconstructed at its present site, Edmund Buchner and other scholars sketched what the panel may have looked like. Cartwright, Mark. The Senate proposed building the altar in the Curia, but Augustus decided to place the structure near his mausoleum in the Campus Martius. Boschung and Bonanno have both matched the face to early period Tiberius statuary. [3] Several dozens of the buildings surrounding the Mausoleum were levelled to free up space around the monument. The long friezes of the Ara Pacis (the North and South Walls) contain figures advancing towards the West, who participate in a state of thanksgiving to celebrate the Peace created by Augustus. [26] The Gaius identification is best supported by his size, however an additional boy in Roman dress who has a bulla (but has lost his head!) The 3 m tall altar itself stands on a 6 x 7 m podium and has relief scenes depicting Vestal Virgins, priests and sacrificial animals. Ancient History Encyclopedia. License. Last modified October 13, 2013. The figure of Augustus was not discovered until the 1903 excavation, and his head was damaged by the cornerstone of the Renaissance palazzo built on top of the original Ara Pacis site. e.g. The structure has a central altar set on a podium surrounded by high walls (11.6 x 10.6 m) composed of large rectangular slabs. [23] Many scholars, realizing by 1935 that Lucius was too young to be the boy beside Agrippa, preferred to identify him as Gaius. Stern claims that these figures cannot possibly be the Domitii Ahenobarbi, on the basis of the belief that Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus, whom von Domaszewski saw as the boy of the family, was born after the monument's completion. The interior sculpture of the surrounding walls depicts fruit and flower garlands hanging from ox heads (bucrania) above fluting. This helps prove that the ceremony is an event in 13, although a few scholars continued to argue the ceremony was that of 9 BC (until definitive proof in favor of 13 came out in 1939). Within the enclosing precinct walls, the altar itself was carved with images illustrating the lex aria, the law governing the ritual performed at the altar. The 3 m tall altar itself stands on a 6 x 7 m podium & has relief scenes depicting Vestal Virgins, priests & sacrificial animals. In the absence of Augustus from the panel, early scholars debated whether Agrippa (the tall veiled priest) was Augustus or Agrippa or Lepidus. His special interests include pottery, architecture, world mythology and discovering the ideas that all civilizations share in common. Voted for by the Senate in 13 BCE the monument was completed within four years using Italian Luna marble and dedicated on 30th January 9 BCE. [1] This scene has been reconstructed, based on coins that depict such a seated Roma. Absurdly over-scale, it seems indifferent to the naked beauty of the dense and richly textured city around it. In 1932 demolition of buildings surrounding the mausoleum, decided in 1909, started, together with many other demolitions carried on in those years in the city. Ara Pacis, also called Ara Pacis Augustae (Latin: “Altar of the Augustan Peace”), shrine consisting of a marble altar in a walled enclosure erected in Rome’s Campus Martius (Field of Mars) in honour of the emperor Augustus and dedicated on Jan. 30, 9 bce. Nevertheless, much debate has taken place over many of these figures, including Augustus, Agrippa, Tiberius, Julia, and Antonia. diss. [33] Furthermore, Livia has no bond to Agrippa, whereas Julia was his wife and expected to be the unofficial empress of Rome for decades, during and beyond Augustus' lifetime. The South Wall has seen a great deal of scholarship and the greatest number of academic debates. Stern, "Livia Augusta on the Ara Pacis", CAMWS-SS, Winston-Salem, NC, Oct. 2004, Boschung "Die Bildistypen der iulisch-claudischen Kaiserfamilien," JRA 6 (1993), 49. The entryways were flanked by panels depicting allegorical or mythological scenes evocative of peace, piety and tradition. There are two entrances, one on the east and the other on the west (back) side, the latter having a short flight of steps due to the lower ground elevation on that side in its original position. Ara Pacis Augustaeby Manfred Heyde (CC BY-SA). The bucrania in turn evoke the idea of sacrificial piety, appropriate motifs for the interior of the altar precinct. On the east and west sides of the exterior walls are panels with mythological scenes including a version of the she-wolf nursing Romulus and Remus, Roma seated on a pile of armour flanked by Honos and Virtus, Aeneas sacrificing to the Penates and a female figure with two children who may be Pax, Venus Genetrix or Tellus (Mother Earth). 2006, chapter 7. All are captured in a single moment as they participate in a procession. The other twenty-one members are present here. A. von Domaszewski, "Die Familie des Augustus auf der Ara Pacis". [8] Studies of the Ara Pacis and similar public Roman monuments traditionally address the potent political symbolism of their decorative programs, and their emphasis and promulgation of dynastic and other imperial policies; they are usually studied as a form of imperial propaganda. Ancient History Encyclopedia. The Ara Pacis Augustae or Altar of the Augustan Peace in Rome... More free lessons at: Ara Pacis Augustae: Tellus Mater Panel. A goddess sits amid a scene of fertility and prosperity with twins on her lap. Corrections? The cornice of the surrounding wall is a modern addition and is, therefore, plain whereas the original cornice would have been highly decorative with palmettes at each corner. Gaius, seven years old in 13 BC, fit better. It was reassembled in its current location, now the Museum of the Ara Pacis, in 1938, turned 90° from its original orientation so that the original western side now faces south. Petersen had a good idea about families grouping together, but he identified none of the figures correctly in this place. Seventy cubic meters of ground under what was by then the, The fragments, although not complete, were collected and joined together to rebuild the Ara; due to the short time available (work had to be completed before 23 September 1938, the last day of the Augustan anniversary), few fragments available and poor historical sources to refer to for restoration (basically a couple of ancient Roman coins), the reconstruction had to be performed with the help of Italian artist, Peter J. Holliday, "Time, History, and Ritual on the Ara Pacis Augustae", High-resolution 360° Panoramas and Images of, This page was last edited on 15 August 2020, at 19:58. The sacrificial procession depicts animals being led to sacrifice by figures carved in a Republican style similar to the so-called "Altar of Domitius Ahenobarbus", in sharp contrast with the style on the exterior of the precinct walls. The first two foreground figures are lictors, carrying fasces (bundles of rods symbolizing Roman authority). The better preserved scene depicts the sacrifice of a pig (the standard sacrifice when Romans made a peace treaty) by an old priest and two attendants. As Charles Brian Rose has noted, "The variable value of the Eastern costume and the uneasy interaction of Trojan and Parthian iconography can make it difficult to determine whether one is viewing the founders of the Romans or their fiercest opponents."[24]. Submitted by Mark Cartwright, published on 13 October 2013 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Members of individual priestly colleges are depicted in traditional garb appropriate to their office,[7] while lictors can be identified by their iconographic fasces. Various figures in togas are shown with their heads covered (capite velato), signifying their role as both priests and sacrificiants. Pollini also reasons that the delay in Gnaeus' career (only reaching the consulship in 32 AD) resulted from his documented unpleasant character and points out that the careers of other members of the family with undesirable traits also suffered similar delays, notably Augustus' youngest grandson, Agrippa Postumus, who had no career, and Germanicus' brother, the later emperor, Claudius, whose career started late. Surprisingly, a majority of scholars in 2000 preferred to see this figure as Livia. [1] Although he was identified correctly in 1903, Petersen, Strong, and Stuart-Jones initially saw the figure as the rex sacrorum. Other figures wear laurel crowns, traditional Roman symbols of victory. The Tiberius figure was identified as such by Milani, an identification that was rarely questioned until the 1940s. [43] Syme had also argued that Gnaeus was born after the monument's completion, but accepted the identification of the Ahenobarbus family, preferring to identify the boy as an otherwise unknown elder brother and the girl figure as an otherwise unknown elder sister of Gnaeus—both of whom died young. Una galleria, in “La Rivista di Engramma” n. 58 giugno/agosto 2007, Simona Dolari, Riscoperta e fortuna dei rilievi dell'Ara Pacis nell'età della Rinascita, in “La Rivista di Engramma” n. 75 ottobre/novembre 200, Simona Dolari, Ara Pacis 1938. Gaius Stern, "Nero’s Father and Other Romantic Figures on the Ara Pacis Augustae", Sir Ronald Syme, "Neglected Children on the Ara Pacis", in. The interior of the precinct walls are carved with bucrania, ox skulls, from which carved garlands hang. Inez Scott Ryberg "The Procession of the Ara Pacis", Toynbee (1953), 85; J. Benario (1960), 348; Polacco (1960–61), 620–21. Some figures are speaking to each other, one figure (possibly Augustus’ sister) holds a finger to her lips and calls for silence whilst elsewhere some children look decidedly bored with one small child pulling the toga of an adult in order to be picked up. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. More of the marble components were unearthed in the 1800s, though it was not until 1937 that a full-scale operation uncovered the remaining portions of the building. Sedimentation from the rising Tiber River eventually buried the building. John Pollini, "Ahenobarbi, Appuleii and Some Others on the Ara Pacis". [23] This theory won universal acceptance for many decades, even though the evidence is overwhelmingly against. The marble structure, which once stood on the Campus Martius, is a masterpiece of Roman sculpture and, in particular, of portraiture. Storia di una anastilosi difficile, in “La Rivista di Engramma” n. 75 ottobre/novembre 2009, Official web site of the Ara Pacis Museum of Rome, English version, Comprehensive, high quality photo documentation of the Ara Pacis Augustae, Several pages with photos of the sculpture, "Roman Power and Roman Imperial Sculpture", Ara Pacis Bibliography annotated with links, Boncompagni Ludovisi Decorative Art Museum, Museo Storico Nazionale dell'Arte Sanitaria,, 1st-century BC religious buildings and structures, Ancient Roman buildings and structures in Rome, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, In 1568, the first fragmentary sculptures were rediscovered beneath, In 1859 further sculptural fragments were found in the same area under the, In 1909 it was decided that several buildings closely surrounding the, Between 1918 and 1921 the President of the. Sieveking later reversed his position with a series of peculiar suggestions. Bibliography The altar reflects the Augustan vision of Roman civil religion. Various pieces of the altar were re-discovered c. 1568, 1859 and 1903 CE and a more concerted excavation of the site was carried out between 1937 and 1938 CE. Scholars have variously suggested that the goddess is Italia, Tellus (Earth), Venus, and Peace, although other views also circulate. The ceremony took place in the summer of 13 BC, but not necessarily on 4 July, when the Senate voted to build the Ara Pacis. Although the name suggests this college has exactly fifteen members, the size of the college has grown to 23, including Augustus and Agrippa, who appear on the South Frieze. From photos, the gap appears to affect a single figure, but as Koeppel, Conlin, and Stern have proven, in-site examination reveals that one is a foreground and the other a background figure.[21]. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. Unlike the North Wall, where most of the heads are new (not authentic ancient heads, but modern creations), the heads of the figures on the South Wall are mostly original. Cite This Work Two very badly damaged figures in the middle are split by a gap. The Mythology of the Ara Pacis Augustae: Iconography and Symbolism. [17] Paul Rehak later published an article with this proposal, confirmed in a chapter of his posthumous book. [38] This identification remains widespread today. Once that is eliminated, the idea of opening the piazza to the river is a good one." The lower register of its frieze depicts vegetal work meant to communicate the abundance and prosperity of the Roman Peace (Latin: Pax Augusta), while the monument as a whole serves a civic ritual function whilst simultaneously operating as propaganda for Augustus and his regime, easing notions of autocracy and dynastic succession that might otherwise be unpalatable to traditional Roman culture. In 1907, this scene was identified by Johannes Sieveking[15] as the moment when Aeneas, newly arrived in Italy, sacrificed a sow and her 30 piglets to Juno, as told by Virgil and others, even though the scene differs greatly from Vergil's description. "Ara Pacis Augustae." These figures fall into four categories: lictors (men carrying fasces, bodyguards of magistrates); priests (three of the four major collegia – Pontifices, Septemviri, and Quindecimviri): women and children (generally from the imperial family, represented in portraiture); and attendants (a few anonymous figures necessary for religious purposes). Indeed, Livia does appear somewhere (her exclusion is unlikely), but by 13 BC Julia had politically eclipsed Livia, as has been understood and explained by many scholars. Omissions? Ara Pacis, also called Ara Pacis Augustae (Latin: “Altar of the Augustan Peace”), shrine consisting of a marble altar in a walled enclosure erected in Rome’s Campus Martius (Field of Mars) in honour of the emperor Augustus and dedicated on Jan. 30, 9 bce. These arguments are ongoing despite having the original pavilion replaced by a new one in 2006, known as "Ara Pacis museum". Due to the widespread depiction around the sculpture of scenes of peace, and because the Altar is named for "peace", the favoured conclusion is that the goddess is Pax.[13]. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. [44], Starting in 1894, Eugen Petersen suggested that Lucius Caesar appears between Augustus (this veiled figure is actually Agrippa) and Livia (actually Julia). Women and children are also included among the procession; the depiction of children in Roman sculpture would have been novel at the time of the Altar's construction, evoking themes of moral and familial piety, as well as easing concerns over dynastic intentions while simultaneously introducing potential heirs to the public eye. [1] Their identification by their non-Roman costume and their participation in the ceremony advertises to all that Rome is the centre of the world, and that other nations send their young to Rome to learn Roman ways, so great is Rome's reputation. Syme also proved somewhat unintentionally, based on the inscription ILS 6095 that Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus was governor of Africa in 13 BC and could not be in Rome for the Ara Pacis ceremony. Largely complete, the altar now stands in the purpose built Museo dell'Ara Pacis, an elegant glass and stone structure next to the Mausoleum of Augustus in Rome. Nicolai Ouroussoff, of The New York Times called the building "a contemporary expression of what can happen when an architect fetishizes his own style out of a sense of self-aggrandizement. "It's an improvement," says Meier, adding that "the reason that wall was there has to do with traffic and noise. [29][30][31][32] The identification dates back to Milani in 1891. Some scholars assumed this boy also was a participant in the Troy Games, although he is certainly too young (six or seven was the minimum age). The structure was commissioned in 13 bce to commemorate Augustus’s return from the provinces of Gaul, where he had spent three years supervising the administration of the region. [5] The lower register of the interior walls imitate the appearance of traditionally wooden altar precincts, which were meant to bring to mind other such altars in Rome and the tradition of constructing altars at the boundary of the city's pomerium.[6]. In relation to Antonia, Drusus, and Germanicus, H. Dütschke proposed in 1880 the correct identity for Antonia and Drusus, but incorrectly saw the toddler as Claudius. In 1894, and again in 1902 and 1903, Eugen Petersen suggested that Lucius Caesar appears with Agrippa, dressed in a "Trojan" costume for the Troy Game held in 13 BC (see below). Restoration of the Ara Pacis was ongoing during the 20th century, both to halt the decay related to age and to reverse the effects of earlier, haphazard attempts at salvage. For Gaius to appear in public without his bulla would invite the evil eye. Many scholars used to identify the veiled, leading figure as Julia, daughter of Augustus, but since Julia appears on the South Frieze, it is more likely that this figure is Octavia Minor. [1][14] Again this panel is a modern drawing without much evidence. This same figure in Hellenistic dress has also been interpreted as Ptolemy of Mauretania representing Africa, along with the German boy (Europe) and the Parthian prince (Asia). The mayor's office said Alemanno hopes to complete the project before the end of his term in 2013. The marble structure, which once stood on the Campus Martius, is a masterpiece of Roman sculpture and, in particular, of portraiture. After Loewy's 1926 article, consensus shifted to Gaius Caesar. H. Dütschke, "Ueber ein römisches Relief mit Darstellung der Familie des Augustus". [35][36] But as has been well established, Augustus is flanked by priests, and this figure is Tiberius. [34] V. H. von Poulsen and Toynbee proposed Iullus Antonius. Our latest podcast episode features popular TED speaker Mara Mintzer. In 1938 the finally reconstructed Ara was placed near the Mausoleum of Augustus, and a big pavilion was built around it by architect Vittorio Ballio Morpurgo as part of Benito Mussolini's attempt to create an ancient Roman "theme park" to glorify Fascist Italy. In addition there are two or three non-Roman children, who may be guests (or hostages) in Rome. [16] Subsequently, the suggestion was made that the scene shows Numa Pompilius, the Roman king associated with Peace and the Gates of Janus. The West Wall also contains two panels. The identity of these various figures has been a point of some controversy over the years, relying heavily on interpretation of fragmentary remains, discussed below. The monument was commissioned by the Roman Senate on July 4, 13 BC to honour the return of Augustus to Rome after three years in Hispania and Gaul and consecrated on January 30, 9 BC.

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