My guide of him, exclaim'd: "Such as I was This is the title of the play by the Greek tragedian Aeschylus, who recounts the war between the two sons of Oedipus, king of Thebes. Copyright © 2016. He seized in anger the sharp thunderbolt, Among these sinners, the blasphemous, Dante speaks with the giant, Caphaneus, whose arrogance Virgilio rebukes. 63«O Capaneo, in ciò che non s’ammorza. A way the margins make that are not burning, And over them all vapours are extinguished.”. Its bed and both its banks were made of stone, Sobre todo o areão caíam brasas quentes, From there we reached the boundary that divides Our steps we stay'd. The viands, doubly to augment the pain. 118infin, là ove più non si dismonta, ", Then did my guide speak with such vehemence. 53crucciato prese la folgore aguta 10.94). Silently on we pass'd 14.2-3]). [3] The violent against God who inhabit this burning desert are divided into three distinct groups, each of which is governed by a “diversa legge” (different decree [Inf. The “lagrime” that make a fissure that runs down the Old Man of Crete (verse 113) do not masterfully and poignantly testify to our suffering, as do Vergil’s lacrimae rerum. [25] In the first half of Inferno 14, Capaneo performs the principle that we are our own Hell, boasting that he is now and for all eternity exactly what he used to be. Which from its bed rejecteth every plant; The dolorous forest is a garland to it which quenches every flame that burns above it.”. De pura prata reuniam-se acocoradas em pequenos grupos. Form Acheron, and Styx, and Phlegethon; 5lo secondo giron dal terzo, e dove No centro da montanha Detailed explanations, analysis, and citation info for every important quote on LitCharts. “Among all other things that I have shown you 116fanno Acheronte, Stige e Flegetonta; O Letes tu ainda verás, mas fora deste mundo. here, at the very edge, we stayed our steps. and then they make their way down this tight channel, and at the point past which there’s no descent, there where the spirits go to cleanse themselves "Inferno Study Guide." The two poets come upon a desert surrounded by the forest they have just been walking through. In the Phlegraean warfare, and the bolts for of one It needs not bring up wonder in thy looks." Save that the right foot is of kiln—baked clay, maioria caminhava sem parar. It was the spot which Rhea, Saturn's spouse, in Mongibello, at the sooty forge, Course Hero. Which all the little ‘dames above it quenches.”. already—when you saw the red stream boiling. 80che parton poi tra lor le peccatrici, besieging Thebes; he held-and still, it seems. [7] Dante learned of Capaneus in Statius’ epic poem Thebaid. As is this river, has thine eye discern'd, and always toward the left and toward the bottom. no meu último dia, nem estas brasas que ele agora lança sobre mim farão as snow descends on alps when no wind blows. The marble glow'd underneath, as under stove As from the Bulicame pours a brook Crete is not just the home of the Minotaur, “l’infamia di Creti” (infamy of Crete) of Inferno 12.12. Hell is precisely a condition in which the soul is permanently oneself as on earth: unrepentant and unameliorated, with no hope of change or growth. "Doubtless thy questions all well pleas'd I hear. 107e puro argento son le braccia e ’l petto, 111e sta ’n su quel, più che ’n su l’altro, eretto. Thus far precipitated down the rock But, in “reality” (the “reality” of Dante’s Hell, this artifact of human genius), as Virgilio tells him, his undiminished pride is in fact his most appropriate punishment: [20] If Capaneus’ greatest punishment is his own arrogance, then in effect Capaneus has created his own Hell. non se' ancor per tutto 'l cerchio vòlto; you still have not completed all the circle: it need not bring such wonder to your face. Here Dante devises a parable through which to restate the guiding principle of the canto, that we are our own Hell. Dante here comes up with a genial way to make the idea that we are our own Hell literally true: his way of communicating that we humans make Hell — that Hell is not imposed upon us from outside, but is our own creation — is to come up with the idea that the rivers of Hell are made of our tears: the tears of history. and looks at Rome as if it were his mirror. [9] Like Inferno 9 and Inferno 12, Inferno 14 is saturated with classical figures and motifs. intact and to the ground, on his battalions, for which-wisely-he had his soldiers tramp, the soil to see that every fire was spent, with this, the sand was kindled just as tinder. Then he declared: “The time has come to quit but it is withered now like some old thing. Tears flow through the cracks in the statue, gathering at his feet. pode perder as esperanças de vingança. The heat, still falling fresh. Chose for the secret cradle of her son; 57chiamando “Buon Vulcano, aiuta, aiuta!”. [16] Dante’s Capaneus is likewise reduced from the heroic proportions that were his in the Thebaid. So downward through the sand it went its way. (including. Thus Dante tells us in the first verses of Inferno 21 that he and Virgilio were talking of “other” matters that his poem does not choose to relate: “altro parlando / che la mia comedìa cantar non cura” (speaking of other things that my comedy does not choose to sing [Inf. must follow such a course down from our world, 6si vede di giustizia orribil arte. 138quando la colpa pentuta è rimossa». 114le quali, accolte, fóran quella grotta. While Eteocles ruled Thebes, Polynices gathered together a great army led by the Seven Against Thebes to attack the city and oust his brother. 38onde la rena s’accendea, com’ esca It is therefore particularly apt that this bitter landscape — an arid plain tormented by falling flakes of fire — should be characterized as the horror-inducing  product of God’s justice. Dante notes that the sinners in this ring are "ruled by different decrees" corresponding to different types of violence against God. 14.21]). "In midst of ocean," forthwith he began, Whither to lave themselves the spirits go, Our human history — the tears that are the distillation of human suffering through time — become the rivers of Hell. e puro argento son le braccia e 'l petto. As yet thy feet upon the burning sand, The Vergilian melancholy of sunt lacrimae rerum becomes in Dante’s hands much more pointed and ethical. ", but always keep them back, close to the forest. Whereon I straight perceiv'd our passage lay. Violence against God in His possessions, we remember, can take two different forms: violence against nature (God’s daughter) is sodomy and violence against human art (nature’s daughter, God’s granddaughter) is usury. Instant downloads of all 1375 LitChart PDFs 97Una montagna v’è che già fu lieta Things then first seen Accessed November 18, 2020. If the motto of the sinners here is that they are now what they always were, then in effect these sinners create their own Hell. A little brook, whose crimson'd wave yet lifts We came, which from the third the second round própria ira, seria melhor punição ao teu orgulho! The hero weeps while perusing a mural in a Carthaginian temple that depicts battles of the Trojan War and the deaths of his friends and countrymen. . Whene’er he cried, she there had clamours made. são seus braços e o peito. In Purgatorio 6, Dante-poet will boldly use the term “Giove” in his own challenging apostrophe to the Christian divinity. Weary his workman out, from whom in ire Some lay upon the ground, flat on their backs; some huddled in a crouch, and there they sat; The largest group was those who walked about. The early commentators faced the far from trivial task of sourcing the references of a canto like Inferno 14, references that are provided to us. Deserted now like a forbidden thing. banha a alma penitente que, arrependida, da sua culpa se purifica. All round about, as the sad moat to that; sotto 'l cui rege fu già 'l mondo casto. 22Supin giacea in terra alcuna gente, Dante's simile about snow tries to find an earthly comparison by which he can convey the strangeness of the fire falling from the sky here, even as it is stranger than anything Dante can compare it to. Which by the feet of Cato once was pressed. 101del suo figliuolo, e per celarlo meglio, The fire, and lieth lowering and disdainful, Those who lie flat on their backs, directly pelted by the raining fire, are the blasphemers, the violent against God in His person. Now this, now that way glancing, to shake off From Bulicame, to be portion'd out [9] Like Inferno 9 and Inferno 12, Inferno 14 is saturated with classical figures and motifs. 14.51]) — is a quintessential example of one of these baseline truths. just as that wood is ringed by a sad channel; This refers to Mount Ida, in the center of the island of Crete, which has a cave reputed to be the birthplace of Zeus. we can succinctly state this core principle of Dante’s, “il nuovo e mai non fatto cammino di questa vita” (the new and never before traveled path of this life [, I gathered up the scattered boughs / and gave, the second from the third ring” (“fine ove si parte / lo secondo giron dal terzo” [, On occasion it is useful to practice the thought-experiment of what it would be like to read the, Capaneus’ boast — “Qual io fui vivo, tal son morto” (That which I was in life, I am in death [, “Qual io fui vivo, tal son morto” (That which I was in life, I am in death [, sotto ’l cui rege fu già ’l mondo casto” (, Under its king the world once lived chastely, From its golden head to its iron base, the Old Man of Crete literally de-grades: following the downward trend of human history as sung by the classical poets, from gold to silver to bronze to iron, the statue becomes ever more debased. Subjected: for on the' earth some lay supine, a sand not different in kind from that Liv'd pure and chaste. 120tu lo vedrai, però qui non si conta». For which he had given me largess of desire. 129non de’ addur maraviglia al tuo volto». "A desolate country lies, which Crete is nam'd, É de cobre dali até onde começam as pernas. To trample on the soil; for easier thus 92per ch’io ’l pregai che mi largisse ’l pasto Thou say'st, is form'd." 128per che, se cosa n’apparisce nova, Nem o raio com o qual ele me atingiu And from the fissure tears distil, which join'd For more on these fundamental principles of the Commedia, I refer the reader to The Undivine Comedy, chapter 2, “Infernal Incipits: The Poetics of the New”. - perguntei. 10.78]). Capaneus is an interesting example of Dante's incorporation of classical characters into his Christian poem. Still to the left descending to the bottom, Thou hast not yet through all the circle turned. seu ódio, é condecorado com essas "medalhas" incandescentes que enfeitam Than on the other more erect he stands, You shall see Lethe, but past this abyss, fatt' era 'n pietra, e ' margini da lato; together with the slopes along its shores. sempre à esquerda e descendo, não demos ainda uma volta completa; muito Like canti 9 and 12, Inferno 14 is a canto that tests the erudition of its readers. os galhos espalhados e devolvê-los àquele tronco, “In all thy questions truly thou dost please me,” why can we see it only at this boundary?”. Shall see it) I here give thee no account." However, it turns out that the pilgrim’s reliance on classical knowledge leads him astray, for Lethe is not in Dante’s Hell. By all, who read what here my eyes beheld! already-when you saw the red stream boiling. 112Ciascuna parte, fuor che l’oro, è rotta In Mongibello, while he cries aloud; rochas penetram e aqui deságuam, formando o Aqueronte, 69ch’assiser Tebe; ed ebbe e par ch’elli abbia. Of Ammon saw upon his warrior band - O Flegetonte - respondeu -, é a fonte deste riacho que agora vês saindo 119fanno Cocito; e qual sia quello stagno Bits of fire shower down on these spirits like snow, catching the sand on fire when it lands. Collected, and to him restor'd, who now Dante and Virgilio move through the forest of the suicides and come upon a giant plain filled with naked sinners, some walking, others crouching, and the most tortured lying supine in the sand as flakes of fire rain down upon them. Who holds his shoulders turned tow’rds Damietta, Pelo I saw so many flocks of naked souls, As in his mirror looks. Most of all, Dante’s Capaneus is not a sympathetic or a charismatic figure, and as a result he is an excellent vehicle for articulating certain baseline truths about Dante’s Hell. 73Or mi vien dietro, e guarda che non metti, [34] Toward the end of Inferno 14 Virgilio explains that because they travel in spirals, without ever traversing a circle’s entire perimeter, Dante should not be amazed if a “new thing” — a “cosa nova” (Inf. o centauro. Continuamos a jornada até chegarmos ao lugar onde se separa o terceiro If Jove The two brothers end up killing each other, fulfilling the curse of Oedipus. [22] But this kind of information is best absorbed when it comes from a character like Capaneus, a character whom Dante does not seek to make sympathetic or charismatic and in whom the reader does not become emotionally invested. O lugar era um estéril There where the souls repair to lave themselves, Wrought in my bosom, I the scatter'd leaves In the same way that Dante’s knowledge of Odysseus comes through Vergil and Cicero and Statius and Horace, so his knowledge of Thebes comes from Statius and other Latins. In other words: I am unchanged, Hell has not altered me. as snow descends on alps when no wind blows. Dante's questions are important steps in his spiritual return to the straight path: he increasingly shows an interest in understanding the nature of God's will and his plan for humankind. they were ruled by different decrees. He straight replied: your feet upon the sand that's burning hot, ma sempre al bosco tien li piedi stretti. 67Poi si rivolse a me con miglior labbia, 4Indi venimmo al fine ove si parte holds—God in great disdain, disprizing Him; 14.68-69]). To make these strange things clear, I must explain. 135dovea ben solver l’una che tu faci. 115Lor corso in questa valle si diroccia; "Tra tutto l'altro ch'i' t'ho dimostrato, "Among all other things that I have shown you, since we first made our way across the gate, no thing has yet been witnessed by your eyes.

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