La coppia rimase ospite di Enrico VII d'Inghilterra ma furono in realtà ostaggi per tutta la durata del loro soggiorno. Per ottenere il rilascio Filippo fu obbligato a firmare un trattato con Enrico VII – il cosiddetto Malus Intercursus – che comprendeva un patto di difesa reciproca, l'estradizione dei ribelli, incluso il conte di Suffolk, Edmund de la Pole, che in esilio era ospite di Filippo nei Paesi Bassi e un accordo commerciale che permetteva ai commercianti inglesi di importare senza dazi abiti nei Paesi Bassi. Function: view, L'eredità borgognona e l'alleanza spagnola, Habsburg, Philipp I. der Schöne von Oesterreich, Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich, Hermann Wiesflecker, Maximilian I. und die habsburgische-spanischen Heirats- und Bündnisverträge von 1495–1496, in, Charles V: Duty and Dynasty. The dynamic nature of our site means that Javascript must be enabled to function properly. [6][7] Under Philip's reign, Spain saw a fivefold increase in prices. He ruled the largest global empire the world had ever seen which included territories in every continent except Antarctica. Even a churchman, Archbishop Carranza, was jailed by the Inquisition for seventeen years for publishing ideas that seemed sympathetic in some degree to Protestantism. Function: _error_handler, File: /home/ah0ejbmyowku/public_html/application/views/user/popup_harry_book.php Though something of a meddlesome micro-manager, he took great care and responsibility in administering his empire. La maggior parte degli storici ora concorda sul fatto che all'epoca Giovanna era semplicemente depressa dal punto di vista clinico, non pazza come comunemente si crede. Earlier, however, after several setbacks in his reign and especially that of his father, Philip did achieve a decisive victory against the Turks at the Lepanto in 1571, with the allied fleet of the Holy League, which he had put under the command of his illegitimate brother, John of Austria. Nel 1687 ricevette la corona d'Ungheria e divenne Re dei Romani il 6 gennaio 1690. King of Spain (1556-98), King of Naples (1554-98), Duc de Brabant et Duc de Limbourg, Comte de Flandre, Comte de Hainaut (1555-98), Comte de Bourgogne et Comte de Charolais (1556-98), King of Portugal (1580-98), *****************************************************************************************************. However, Charles V had left Philip with a debt of 36 million ducats and a deficit of 1 million ducats a year. Maria died in 1545. Nevertheless, he prevented Protestantism from gaining a grip in Spain and Portugal and the colonies in the New World. De su segundo matrimonio con María Tudor no hubo hijos, pero de su tercer matrimonio con Isabel de Valois tuvo dos hijas, con lo que al morir en 1568 Isabel de Valois y su primogénito Carlos, Felipe II se encontró con 41 años, viudo y sin descendencia masculina. El fracaso posibilitó una mayor libertad al comercio inglés y holandés, un mayor número de ataques a los puertos españoles —como el de Cádiz que fue incendiado por una flota inglesa en 1596— y, asimismo, la colonización inglesa de Norteamérica. While the invasion had been averted, England was unable to take advantage of this success. In 1588, the Spanish Armada was destroyed by a tempest off the southern cost of Ireland, thus thwarting his planned invasion of England. The lack of a viable supreme assembly would lead to a great deal of power being concentrated in Philip's hands, but this was made necessary by the constant conflict between different authorities that required his direct intervention as the final arbiter. Filippo fu convocato in Spagna, dove fu riconosciuto come re. Presiding over a sharply divided conservative class structure, the Church and the upper classes were exempt from taxation (to be expected, considering their lack of parliamentary powers) while the tax burden fell disproportionately on the classes engaged in trade, commerce, and industry. Il 27 giugno 1506, il trattato di Villafáfila fu firmato tra Ferdinando e Filippo, con Filippo proclamato re di Castiglia dalle cortes di Valladolid. spagnolo. In June 1595 the redoubtable French king defeated the Spanish-supported Holy League in Fontaine-Française in Burgundy and reconquered Amiens from the overstretched Spanish forces in September 1597. The battle lasted until May 14, 1560, and the forces of Piyale Pasha and Turgut Reis (who joined Piyale Pasha on the third day of the battle) had an overwhelming victory at the Battle of Djerba. Aside from draining state revenues for failed overseas adventurism, the domestic policies of Philip II further burdened Spain, and would, in the following century, contribute to its decline. Filippo fu convocato in Spagna, dove fu riconosciuto come re. Figlio maggiore dell'Imperatore Leopoldo I e della sua terza moglie, Eleonora del Palatinato-Neuburg, figlia dell'Elettore Palatino Filippo Guglielmo, venne educato dal Principe Dietrich Otto von Salm e divenne un buon linguista. Questo fatto aveva suscitato grande scalpore, in quanto in quell'epoca la Chiesa stava dando l'immagine di sé stessa come di un'entità trionfante dopo le vittorie politiche della fine del XVIII secolo, e la fede protestante del nuovo tutore del futuro imperatore preoccupò in particolare i Gesuiti, che lo accusarono di essere segretamente un giansenista. Historical ceiling preserved in Prado Museum.After living in the Netherlands in the early years of his reign,[4] Philip II decided to return to Spain. 1545, d. 1568, Children of Felipe II von Habsburg, Rey de España and Elizabeth de Valois, Princesse de France, 3.Isabella Clara Eugenia von Habsburg+ b. He was a fervent Roman Catholic, and exhibited the typical 16th century disdain for religious heterodoxy. Questo speciale consiglio curava inoltre i rapporti esteri con Scandinavia, Polonia, Ungheria, Francia, Inghilterra, Paesi Bassi, Spagna, Portogallo, stati italiani, Svizzera, Turchia e Russia e curava gli affari più delicati del Sacro Romano Impero. Durante questo interregno, Filippo fu coinvolto negli eventi e fu anche brevemente sequestrato a Bruges come parte della più ampia campagna fiamminga per sostenere le loro rivendicazioni di maggiore autonomia, che avevano strappato a Maria di Borgogna in un accordo noto come il Gran Privilegio del 1477. La anexión de Portugal fue económicamente un gran esfuerzo para Castilla, pues pasó a costear la defensa marítima de su extenso Imperio sin aportar Portugal nada al conjunto. Due to inflation and a high tax burden for Spanish manufacturers and merchants, Spanish industry was harmed and much of Spain’s wealth was spent on imported manufactured goods by an opulent, status-oriented aristocracy and wars. Il matrimonio fu uno di un insieme di alleanze familiari tra gli Asburgo e i Trastámara, progettate per rafforzarsi contro il crescente potere francese, che era aumentato significativamente grazie alle politiche di Luigi XI e l'affermazione di successo del potere regale dopo la guerra con la lega del bene pubblico. But the war would continue for the next sixteen years, and itself be linked to a complex series of struggles that included France, Ireland and the main battle zone, the Low Countries. Spain was subject to separate assemblies: the Cortes in Castile along with the assembly in Navarre and three for each of the three regions of Aragon, each of which jealously guarded their traditional rights and laws inherited from the time they were separate kingdoms. The Spanish navy was rebuilt, and intelligence networks were improved. They must never seek to use it." For one, far too much power was concentrated in Philip's hands. Egli si concentrò nella costruzione di opere pubbliche come il celebre Kärntnertortheater, riuscendo a competere con la politica di Luigi XIV di Francia che però in quegli stessi anni stava vivendo l'ultima fase del suo decennale governo in Francia, confronto che venne ricercato anche nella costruzione di splendidi palazzi come quello di Schönbrunn che arrivò ad un certo punto a competere con Versailles benché molto diverso da quello attuale di epoca teresiana. Husband of Eufrasia de Guzman Porras y Franco; Maria Manuela de Avis, Princesa de Astúrias; Mary I of England; Elisabeth de Valois, of Valois and Anna of Austria Further information: Ottoman-Habsburg wars. The storm was seen by many of Philip's enemies as a sign of the will of God. Felipe II además de subir estos durante su reinado, implantó otros, entre ellos el excusado en 1567, impuestos sobre parroquias. On January 16, 1556, Philip succeeded to the throne of Spain, as a result of his father's abdication, but he did not choose to reside in the country until his father's death two years later. Desde su muerte fue presentado por sus defensores como arquetipo de virtudes, y como un monstruo fanático y despótico por sus enemigos. Giovanna rifiutò di lasciare che il suo corpo fosse seppellito o separarsi da lui per un po'. La successione alle corone castigliana e aragonese passò quindi a Giovanna. The Emperor and his Changing World 1500-1558, Danubia: A Personal History of Habsburg Europe, Philippe le Beau: le dernier duc de Bourgogne, Neptune and the Netherlands: State, Economy, and War at Sea in the Renaissance, Mitteilungen des Instituts für Österreichische Geschichtsforschung, https://it.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Filippo_I_d%27Asburgo&oldid=116132221, P535 multipla letta da Wikidata senza qualificatore, Voci biografiche con codici di controllo di autorità, licenza Creative Commons Attribuzione-Condividi allo stesso modo. Negli anni precedenti Massimiliano aveva nominato l'unica figlia, Margherita d'Asburgo, tutrice in favore dei nipoti Carlo e Ferdinando, che sarebbe divenuto anch'esso Imperatore del Sacro Romano Impero. Philip's wars against what he perceived to be heresies led not only to the persecution of Protestants, but also to the harsh treatment of the Moriscos, causing a massive local uprising in 1568. Ciò portò in gran parte alle voci della sua follia a causa di resoconti di atti depressivi o nevrotici commessi mentre veniva imprigionata o costretta dal marito, voci di cui Filippo beneficiò politicamente. Line: 68 Si el matrimonio tenía un hijo, se convertiría en heredero de Inglaterra, los Países Bajos y Borgoña. The joint fleet was assembled at Messina and consisted of 200 ships (60 galleys and 140 other vessels) carrying a total of 30,000 soldiers under the command of Giovanni Andrea Doria, nephew of the famous Genoese admiral Andrea Doria who had lost three major battles against the Turks in 1538, 1541 and 1552. Philip's regime neglected arable farming in favor of sheep ranching, thus forcing Spain to import large amounts of grain and other foods by the mid-1560s. People/Characters: Filippo I d'Asburgo. Philip became King of Portugal in 1581, when he was crowned as Philip I of Portugal and was recognized as such by the Cortes of Tomar. Figlio dell'imperatore Massimiliano d'Austria e di Maria di Borgogna, sposò nel 1496 Giovanna la Pazza, figlia dei re “cattolici” (Ferdinando II e Isabella) ed erede dei loro regni, stabilendo il legame tra Austria e Spagna. Although under his reign global expansion and trade flourished this was not necessarily a good thing because it led to inflation and a massive amount of debt. To remain compliant with EU laws we would like to inform that this site uses cookies. However, they had no children; Queen Mary, or "Bloody Mary" as she came to be known in English Protestant lore, died in 1558 before the union could revitalize the Catholic Church in England. One of the long term consequences of his striving to enforce Catholic orthodoxy through an intensification of the Inquisition was the gradual smothering of Spain's intellectual life. De la Iglesia Felipe II consiguió recaudar hasta el 20% de la riqueza de la Corona, lo que supuso la crítica de algunos eclesiásticos. In 1580, the direct line of the Portuguese royal family ended when Sebastian of Portugal died following a disastrous campaign in Morocco. In 1585 a peace treaty was signed with the Ottomans. La successione alle corone castigliana e aragonese passò quindi a Giovanna. The grave threat posed by the increasing Ottoman domination of the Mediterranean was reversed in one of history's most decisive battles, with the destruction of nearly the entire Ottoman fleet at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571, by the Holy League under the command of Philip's half brother, Don Juan of Austria. In 1588 he sent a fleet of vessels, the Spanish Armada, to lead an invasion. The rebel leader, William I, Prince of Orange (William the Silent) was outlawed by Philip, and assassinated in 1584 by a Catholic fanatic after Philip had offered a reward of 25,000 crowns to anyone who killed William the Silent, calling him a 'pest on the whole of Christianity and the enemy of the human race'. Felipe II no volvería a casarse. The myth of "Turkish invincibility" was becoming a popular story, causing fear and panic among the people. Testa la tua conoscenza e quella dei tuoi amici. riassunto di Storia Nel 1494, Massimiliano abbandonò la reggenza in base ai termini del trattato di Senlis e Filippo in persona, sedicenne, assunse il controllo delle terre borgognone, sebbene nella pratica l'autorità era derivata da un concilio di notabili. Lana, de oveja merina, procesada en los Países Bajos que, vendida a precios razonables, llegaría manufacturada a España, con el correspondiente valor añadido, pero menor que si hubiera sido manufacturada en la península puesto que allí la mano de obra era más barata. En las últimas Cortes, los diputados protestaron efusivamente ante otra demanda de más dinero por parte del rey, urgiendo por una retirada de los ejércitos de Flandes, buscar la paz con Francia e Inglaterra y concentrar su formidable poder militar y marítimo en la defensa de España y su Imperio. Durante su reinado hizo frente a muchos problemas internos entre los cuales caben destacar: su hijo Carlos, su secretario Antonio Pérez y la guerra de las Alpujarras. Philip became increasingly dependent on loans from foreign bankers, particularly in Genoa and Augsburg. Por esta razón, era un punto a la vez estratégico y de debilidad para Felipe II. Otras juntas dependientes de ésta, eran la de Milicia, de Población, de Cortes, de Arbitrios y de Presidentes. The dispersal of the Moriscos from Granada - motivated by the fear they might support an Ottoman invasion - had serious negative economic effects, particularly in that region. So in spite of the great and increasing quantities of gold and silver flowing into his coffers from the American mines, the riches of the Portuguese spice trade and the enthusiastic support of the Habsburg dominions for the Counter-Reformation, he would never succeed in suppressing Protestantism or defeating the Dutch rebellion. En 1590 se aprueban en las Cortes los millones, consistentes en ocho millones de ducados al año para los seis siguientes años, éstos se dedicaron para construir una nueva Armada y para la sangrante política militar, esto terminó por arruinar a las ciudades castellanas y fulminar con los ya débiles intentos de industrialización que quedaban. Spanish hegemony and the Counter-Reformation received a clear boost in 1554 when Philip married Queen Mary, a Catholic, the older daughter of Henry VIII, and his father's first cousin. Hijo y heredero de Carlos I de España e Isabel de Portugal, era nieto por vía paterna de Juana I de Castilla y Felipe I y de Manuel I de Portugal y María de Castilla por vía materna. Despite its immense dominions, Spain was a poor country with a sparse population that yielded a limited income to the crown. Spanish hegemony and the Counter-Reformation achieved a clear boost in 1554, when Philip married Queen Mary, a Catholic, the older daughter of Henry VIII, and his father's first cousin. The English fleet had faster ships and guns with longer range and defeated the Spanish. Philip was a complex man, and though given to suspicion of members of his court, was not the cruel tyrant that he has been painted by his opponents. Questa politica ebbe un enorme successo e Giuseppe nel 1708 poté registrare delle entrate per la corona variabili tra i 16 e i 17 milioni di talleri. Felipe (14 de abril de 1578 – 31 de marzo de 1621), Príncipe de Asturias, futuro rey de España como Felipe III. De ahí que se afirmase que en sus dominios «nunca se ponía el sol». Questa pagina è stata modificata per l'ultima volta il 19 ott 2020 alle 14:15. Questo sito contribuisce alla audience di. In 1558 Turkish admiral Piyale Paşa captured the Balearic Islands, especially inflicting great damage on Minorca and enslaving many, while raiding the coasts of the Spanish mainland. En 1557, al poco de entrar al poder, la Corona hubo de suspender los pagos de sus deudas. Filippo II d'Asburgo figlio di Carlo V (1556-1598) Mind Map by Erjona Besimi , updated more than 1 year ago More Less Created by Erjona Besimi almost 2 years ago Philip famously remarked upon his acquisition of the Portuguese throne: "I inherited, I bought, I conquered", a variation on Julius Caesar and Veni, Vidi, Vici. He is remembered in the name of The Philippines, a former Spanish colony. En 1596 se produjo una nueva suspensión de pagos. People/Characters by cover : Works (1) Titles: Order: The Last Queen by C. W. Gortner — not in English Common Knowledge: Filippo il Bello: Character description. Philip II (Spanish: Felipe II de España; Portuguese: Filipe I) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord of the Seventeen Provinces (holding various titles for the individual territories, such as Duke or Count) from 1556 until 1581, King of Portugal and the Algarves (as Philip I) from 1580 until 1598 and King of Chile from 1554 until 1556. Function: view, File: /home/ah0ejbmyowku/public_html/application/controllers/Main.php Philip became King of Portugal in 1581, when he was crowned as Philip I of Portugal and was recognized as such by the Cortes of Tomar. El 28 de agosto el Duque de Alba llega a Bruselas. Philip II, (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England, as husband of Mary I, from 1554 to 1558, lord of the Seventeen Provinces from 1556 until 1581, holding various titles for the individual territories, such as duke or count; and King of Portugal and the Algarves as Philip I from 1580. Catalina Micaela von Habsburg+8 b. The flow of income from the New World proved vital to his militant foreign policy, but nonetheless his exchequer several times faced bankruptcy. The grave threat posed by the increasing Ottoman domination of the Mediterranean was reversed in one of history's most decisive battles, with the destruction of nearly the entire Ottoman fleet at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571, by the Holy League under the command of Philip's half brother, Don Juan of Austria. Il coordinatore di questo nuovo gabinetto divenne, come molti avevano previsto, il Principe di Salm, il quale aveva l'ordine di curarne la direzione rispondendone direttamente all'Imperatore stesso. In 1565 the Ottomans sent a large expedition to Malta, which laid siege to several forts on the island, taking some of them. A la ya malparada situación económica en Castilla que recibió de Carlos I, Felipe II dejó España al borde de la crisis. Line: 315 Al conocer en los Países Bajos la decisión de aplicar los acuerdos tridentinos, las mismas autoridades civiles se mostraron reacias a aplicar las penas dictadas por los inquisidores y, fruto de un gran malestar, comenzó un ambiente de revolución. In the early part of his reign, Philip was concerned with the rising power of the Ottoman Empire under Suleiman the Magnificent. El más importante era el Consejo de Estado del cual el rey era el presidente. En este monumental edificio, el más grande de su tiempo (y llamado entonces la octava maravilla del mundo), están enterrados desde entonces casi todos los reyes españoles. Please enable JavaScript in your browser's settings to use this part of Geni. La questione diventò più urgente dopo l'invasione di Carlo VIII dell'Italia del 1494 (nota come prima guerra peninsulare). Seguì un periodo di turbolenze che testimoniavano sporadiche ostilità tra, principalmente, le grandi città delle Fiandre (in particolare Gand e Bruges) e i sostenitori di Massimiliano. El acuerdo fue proceder de manera urgente, y, pese a las diferencias en la forma, el monarca optó por la fuerza. En 1554, según el observador escocés John Elder, Felipe II era de estatura media, más bien pequeña, y continúa: ...de rostro es bien parecido, con frente ancha y ojos grises, de nariz recta y de talante varonil. Giuseppe I, al contrario del padre, era fermamente convinto, come abbiamo visto, che anche all'Austria necessitassero profonde riforme nella conduzione dello Stato. d'Asburgo, re di Castiglia, detto il Bello (Bruges 1478-Burgos 1506). He turned instead to more direct plans to return England to Catholicism by invasion. Giuseppe I d'Asburgo (Vienna, 26 luglio 1678 – Vienna, 17 aprile 1711) è stato Imperatore del Sacro Romano Impero dal 1705 alla morte, nonché Re di Ungheria e Boemia e Arciduca d'Austria. Nimatallah. L'erede al trono, Giovanni, era morto nel 1497 molto poco dopo il suo matrimonio con Margherita d'Austria. Negli incontri tra il 20 e il 27 giugno, mediati dal cardinale Cisneros, il più anziano degli ecclesiastici in Spagna, Ferdinando accettò che i suoi "beneamati figli" (Giovanna e Filippo) prendessero il controllo della Castiglia. Appassionato di caccia, al contrario di molti suoi antenati (primo tra tutti suo padre) egli non aveva il caratteristico "mento asburgico" e veniva descritto dagli storici coevi come un ragazzo di una bellezza innata, con occhi azzurri e capelli biondo-ramati. Philip II died in 1598 of an unspecified, painful cancer, at El Escorial, (near Madrid) and was succeeded by his son, Philip III. y así, para concluir, es tan bien proporcionado de cuerpo, brazo y pierna, y lo mismo todos los demás miembros, que la naturaleza no puede labrar un modelo más perfecto. He was able to finance his military campaigns only by taxing and exploiting the local resources of his empire. 'The Baptism of Phillip II' in Valladolid, Spain. He singlehandedly pursued his war against non-Catholics (Dutch & German Protestants, Turks, Moriscos, etc.) Nel 1504, la suocera di Filippo, la regina Isabella di Castiglia, morì, lasciando la corona a Giovanna. Filippo I è sepolto nella Cappella Reale di Granada (Capilla Real de Granada), insieme a sua moglie e ai suoi genitori Isabella I e Ferdinando II. 10 Oct 1567, d. 6 Nov 1597, 5.unnamed daughter3 Habsburg b. Filippo d'Asburgo, detto il Bello (Bruges, 22 luglio 1478 – Burgos, 25 settembre 1506), fu duca di Borgogna dal 1482 al 1506 e il primo membro del casato d'Asburgo a essere re di Castiglia con l'appellativo di Filippo I. A little over a year later, in a chat with a monk working in his garden, Philip remarked that: “ "It is impiety, and almost blasphemy to presume to know the will of God. Fue educado en la Universidad de Alcalá de Henares junto al hermanastro del rey, don Juan de Austria. L'unica obbligazione che veniva imposta circa i membri di questi consigli è che fossero esperti nel loro campo e che avessero dato effettiva prova di abilità delle loro doti o che si fossero dimostrati valenti nel campo degli affari esteri o in questioni militari. Al bambino fu imposto il nome del suo bisnonno, Filippo il Buono, nonno di sua madre Maria. 1545, d. 1568, -3. On occasion of the marriage, he received the Kingdom of Naples and the title of King of Jerusalem which came with it. Function: _error_handler, Message: Invalid argument supplied for foreach(), File: /home/ah0ejbmyowku/public_html/application/views/user/popup_modal.php Desde el annus horribilis de 1568, el monarca renacentista acentuó su severidad, y con el tiempo se fue asimilando al estereotipo de la Leyenda Negra, tan grave de gesto como de palabra. En 1540 el ducado seguía sin soberano, estando a cargo de un gobernador. On March 12, 1560, the Holy League captured the island of Djerba which had a strategic location and could control the sea routes between Algiers and Tripoli. However, Lepanto marked a permanent reversal in the balance of naval power in the Mediterranean and the end of the threat of complete Ottoman control of that sea. Following the Revolt of the Netherlands in 1568, Philip waged a long war for control of the Netherlands, which dragged in the English and the French and lasted for the rest of his life. The States-General of the Dutch provinces, united in the 1579 Union of Utrecht, passed an Act of Abjuration declaring that they no longer recognized Philip as their king. Además, el 9 de septiembre, Egmont y Horn fueron prendidos, y degollados el 5 de junio de 1568. (5) He married, secondly, Mary I Tudor, Queen of England, daughter of Henry VIII Tudor, King of England and Catarina de Aragón, Infanta de Aragón, on 25 July 1554 at Winchester Cathedral, Winchester, Hampshire, England. - Codice fiscale, Partita IVA ed iscrizione al Registro imprese di Novara n. 01689650032, REA di Novara 191951 28100 Novara - Società con Socio Unico, Società coordinata e diretta da De Agostini S.p.A., - Sede legale in via G. da Verrazano 15, 28100 Novara (Italia). In 1593, Henry agreed to convert to Catholicism; this caused most French Catholics to rally to his side against the Spanish forces. Tuvieron un único hijo: Carlos de Austria (1545 - 68), Príncipe de Asturias. Su tercer matrimonio con Isabel de Valois (1545-1568) tuvo lugar el 22 de junio de 1559. Although sometimes described as an absolute monarch, Philip faced many constitutional constraints on his authority. Artículo principal: Turbaciones de Aragón. Under the terms of the marriage, Philip became king consort during the lifetime of his spouse. En 1586 se crea la Junta Grande, formada por oficiales y controlada por secretarios. During his reign, Spain was the foremost European and global power. In seguito la Svizzera divenne de facto indipendente. As in all contemporary countries, industry was overburdened by government regulations. Eventually, three more Armadas were assembled; two were sent to England, in 1596 and 1597, but both also failed; the third (1599) was diverted to the Azores and Canary Islands to fend off raids. The Ottomans retook the Fortress of Djerba, whose Spanish commander, D. Alvaro de Sande, attempted to escape with a ship but was followed and eventually captured by Turgut Reis. 1.4 Soberano de los Países Bajos y Duque de Borgoña, 2.1 El príncipe Carlos (1545 a 1568) y el problema dinástico, 2.2 La rebelión en las Alpujarras (1568 a 1571), 2.3 La crisis de Aragón (1590 a 1591) y Antonio Pérez, 3.4 Expansión por el Atlántico y el Pacífico. Giuseppe venne incoronato Re d'Ungheria quando aveva appena nove anni, nel 1687, per volere del padre che lo giudicava un ragazzo intelligente e dal talento versatile. Dalla moglie Giovanna, Filippo ebbe sei figli: L'eredità borgognona e l'alleanza spagnola, Habsburg, Philipp I. der Schöne von Oesterreich, Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich, Hermann Wiesflecker, Maximilian I. und die habsburgische-spanischen Heirats- und Bündnisverträge von 1495–1496, in, Charles V: Duty and Dynasty. It dragged in the English and the French and expanded into the German Rhineland, with the devastating Cologne War and lasted for the rest of his life. El comercio en el Mediterráneo para Aragón (especialmente Cataluña) seguía muy dañado por el dominio turco y la competencia de genoveses y venecianos. When the prince died shortly thereafter, from starving himself to death in protest, Philip's enemies accused him of having ordered Carlos's murder. Function: _error_handler, File: /home/ah0ejbmyowku/public_html/application/views/page/index.php However, Philip's reign saw an extraordinary flourishing of cultural excellence in Spain, part of what is called the Golden Age, creating a lasting legacy in literature, music, and the visual arts. He was described by the Venetian ambassador Paolo Fagolo in 1563 as "slight of stature and roundfaced, with pale blue eyes, somewhat prominent lip, and pink skin, but his overall appearance is very attractive." Antecesores de Felipe II Felipe II de España Padre: María de Aragón y Castilla Bisabuelo materno: Casó en primeras nupcias con María de Portugal (1527-1545) el 15 de noviembre de 1543. El 16 de enero de 1556, Carlos I en sus habitaciones privadas y sin ninguna ceremonia, cedió a Felipe la Corona de los Reinos Hispánicos, Sicilia y las Indias. Entre 1576 y 1588 usó la intermediación financiera de Simón Ruiz, que le facilitaba pagos, cobros y préstamos a través de letras de cambio. A finales de 1553 se anunció la boda de Felipe con su tía segunda María I de Inglaterra. The whiteness of his skin corresponds to his white stockings and the greenish golden sheen on his armour. La coppia ebbe tre figli: File: /home/ah0ejbmyowku/public_html/application/views/user/popup_modal.php Philip became increasingly dependent on loans from foreign bankers, particularly in Genoa and Augsburg. La mayor parte de su vida su salud fue delicada. El Rey quería aplicar los acuerdos tridentinos, como había exigido a Catalina de Médicis en Francia contra la nobleza hugonota francesa. He considered himself by default the chief defender of Catholic Europe, both against the Ottoman Turks and against the forces of the Protestant Reformation.

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