Suffering from an acute case of depression, the king began to seek the advice of his wife. After many delays, the escape was ultimately attempted on 21 June 1791, but the entire family was arrested less than twenty-four hours later at Varennes and taken back to Paris within a week. [7][53][54] The child's paternity was contested in the libelles, as were all her children's. [200] In the hours left to her, she composed a letter to her sister-in-law, Madame Élisabeth, affirming her clear conscience, her Catholic faith, and her love and concern for her children. Furthermore, her execution was seen as a sign that the revolution had done its work. The château's high price, almost 6 million livres, plus the substantial extra cost of redecorating, ensured that much less money was going towards repaying France's substantial debt. Marie Antoinette, who had insisted on the arrest of the Cardinal, was dealt a heavy personal blow, as was the monarchy, and despite the fact that the guilty parties were tried and convicted, the affair proved to be extremely damaging to her reputation, which never recovered from it. [163][164], On 17 July 1791, with the support of Barnave and his friends, Lafayette's Garde Nationale opened fire on the crowd that had assembled on the Champ de Mars to sign a petition demanding the deposition of the king. (En une seule nuit ils étaient devenus blancs comme ceux d'une femme de soixante-dix ans. Il 2 novembre 1755 l'imperatrice d'Austria Maria Teresa d'Asburgo dà alla luce il suo quindicesimo figlio: una bella bambina che battezza Maria Antonia. Non dimenticherò mai che voi siete il fautore della mia felicità! She became increasingly unpopular among the people, however, with the French libelles accusing her of being profligate, promiscuous, harboring sympathies for France's perceived enemies—particularly her native Austria—and her children of being illegitimate. Maria Antonia Ferdinanda was given a dowry of 3,500,000 Piedmontese Lires as well as Spanish possessions in Milan. She sang during the family's evening gatherings, as she had a beautiful voice. Lafayette, one of the former military leaders in the American War of Independence (1775–83), served as the warden of the royal family in his position as commander-in-chief of the Garde Nationale. [89][90] She sponsored the arts, in particular music, and also supported some scientific endeavours, encouraging and witnessing the first launch of a Montgolfière, a hot air balloon. To carry this out, Louis Charles was separated from his mother on 3 July after a struggle during which his mother fought in vain to retain her son, who was handed over to Antoine Simon, a cobbler and representative of the Paris Commune. [146][147] At the meeting, Mirabeau was much impressed by the queen, and remarked in a letter to Auguste Marie Raymond d'Arenberg, Comte de la Marck, that she was the only person the king had by him: La Reine est le seul homme que le Roi ait auprès de Lui. Barnave and the moderates comprised about 260 lawmakers in the new Legislative Assembly; the radicals numbered around 136, and the rest around 350. La Società delle Nazioni attua le sanzioni economiche contro l'Italia in quanto paese aggressore dell'Etiopia. Alla sua morte, Maria Antonietta e il marito diventano i nuovi sovrani di Francia. [citation needed], After Louis' execution, Marie Antoinette's fate became a central question of the National Convention. Il Trattato di Hay-Bunau-Varilla viene firmato dagli Stati Uniti e da Panama, dando agli statunitensi i diritti esclusivi sulla zona del Canale di Panama. The Peace of Teschen, signed on 13 May 1779, ended the brief conflict, with the queen imposing French mediation at her mother's insistence and Austria's gaining a territory of at least 100,000 inhabitants—a strong retreat from the early French position which was hostile towards Austria. Leopold's and Francis II's strong action on behalf of Marie Antoinette led to France's declaration of war on Austria on 20 April 1792. Leaving the tower she bumped her head against the lintel of a door, which prompted one of her guards to ask her if she was hurt, to which she answered, "No! Maria Antonietta viene trasferita alla Conciergerie, la prigione tristemente nota per ospitare i condannati a morte prima della ghigliottina. Il verdetto del processo a cui viene sottoposta è scontato: il 16 ottobre 1793 Maria Antonietta viene ghigliottinata. [205][206], Marie Antoinette was guillotined at 12:15 p.m. on 16 October 1793. [108] By publicly showing her attention to the education and care of her children, the queen sought to improve the dissolute image she had acquired in 1785 from the "Diamond Necklace Affair", in which public opinion had falsely accused her of criminal participation in defrauding the jewelers Boehmer and Bassenge of the price of an expensive diamond necklace they had originally created for Madame du Barry. The Infanta's hand was also sought by the Electoral Prince of Saxony. The Portefeuille d’un talon rouge was one of the earliest, including the Queen and a variety of other nobles in a political statement decrying the immoral practices of the court. Her health also began to deteriorate, thus further reducing her physical activities. [13] Queen Maria Antonia Ferdinanda died in September 1785 at the Castle of Moncalieri. [199] At worst, she and her lawyers had expected life imprisonment. All'alba del 10 agosto 1792, ventimila parigini circondano il palazzo reale. Marie Antoinette was instrumental in the reinstatement of Jacques Necker as Finance Minister on 26 August, a popular move, even though she herself was worried that it would go against her if Necker proved unsuccessful in reforming the country's finances. His relationship with the king was more cordial. [67], France's financial problems were the result of a combination of factors: several expensive wars; a large royal family whose expenditures were paid for by the state; and an unwillingness on the part of most members of the privileged classes, aristocracy, and clergy, to help defray the costs of the government out of their own pockets by relinquishing some of their financial privileges. When the affair was discovered, those involved (except de La Motte and Rétaux de Villette, who both managed to flee) were arrested, tried, convicted, and either imprisoned or exiled. [39] In her correspondence, Marie Antoinette's mother, Maria Theresa, expressed concern over her daughter's spending habits, citing the civil unrest it was beginning to cause.[40]. Il popolo di Parigi insorge di nuovo in ottobre. Marie Antoinette was prevented from seeing it, but fainted upon learning of it. Unlike her husband, who had been taken to his execution in a carriage (carrosse), she had to sit in an open cart (charrette) for the hour it took to convey her from the Conciergerie via the rue Saint-Honoré thoroughfare to reach the guillotine erected in the Place de la Révolution (the present-day Place de la Concorde). Thomas Paine advocated exile to America. [14] She was buried at the Royal Basilica of Superga. Despite his high clerical position at the Court, she never addressed a word to him. In addition, she showed her determination to use force to crush the forthcoming revolution.[126][127]. [70], A second visit from Joseph II, which took place in July 1781 to reaffirm the Franco-Austrian alliance and also to see his sister, was tainted by false rumours[56] that Marie Antoinette was sending money to him from the French treasury. The "Carnation Plot" (Le complot de l'œillet), an attempt to help her escape at the end of August, was foiled due to the inability to corrupt all the guards. Silvio Berlusconi in piazza San Babila a Milano annuncia la nascita del Popolo della Libertà. Her mother consented to the latter union but insisted on waiting for Maria Antonia Ferdinanda to reach a more mature age. [112] Brienne was unable to improve the financial situation, and since he was the queen's ally, this failure adversely affected her political position. Their common desire to destroy the ambitions of Prussia and Great Britain and to secure a definitive peace between their respective countries led them to seal their alliance with a marriage: on 7 February 1770, Louis XV formally requested the hand of Maria Antonia for his eldest surviving grandson and heir, Louis-Auguste, duc de Berry and Dauphin of France. [123], The death of the Dauphin on 4 June, which deeply affected his parents, was virtually ignored by the French people,[124] who were instead preparing for the next meeting of the Estates-General and hoping for a resolution to the bread crisis. Dumouriez sympathized with the royal couple and wanted to save them but he was rebuffed by the queen. [Ultime parole prima di essere ghigliottinata, rivolte al boia, al quale aveva pestato un piede sul patibolo]. [50] Nevertheless, following Joseph's intervention, the marriage was finally consummated in August 1777. L'eroe nazionale svizzero Guglielmo Tell, secondo la leggenda medievale, colpisce con una freccia la mela tenuta da suo figlio sulla testa. [211], Both Marie Antoinette's and Louis XVI's bodies were exhumed on 18 January 1815, during the Bourbon Restoration, when the Comte de Provence ascended the newly reestablished throne as Louis XVIII, King of France and of Navarre. Died in childhood; no issue. [171] In addition, at the insistence of his wife, Louis XVI vetoed several measures that would have further restricted his power, earning the royal couple the nicknames "Monsieur Veto" and "Madame Veto",[172][173] nicknames then prominently featured in different contexts, including La Carmagnole. The escape attempt destroyed much of the remaining support of the population for the king. [113] While the sole fault for the financial crisis did not lie with her, Marie Antoinette was the biggest obstacle to any major reform effort. Like Lafayette, Mirabeau was a liberal aristocrat. Louis XVI allowed Marie Antoinette to renovate it to suit her own tastes; soon rumors circulated that she had plastered the walls with gold and diamonds. [47] In a letter to his brother Leopold, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Joseph II described them as "a couple of complete blunderers. Nell'aprile del 1770, lascia per sempre l'Austria alla volta della Francia, dove diverrà Maria Antonietta. A further ceremonial wedding took place on 16 May 1770 in the Palace of Versailles and, after the festivities, the day ended with the ritual bedding. [216], Long after her death, Marie Antoinette remains a major historical figure linked with conservatism, the Catholic Church, wealth, and fashion. Frattanto, la situazione finanziaria dello stato si fa sempre più grave. She was the youngest daughter of Empress Maria Theresa, ruler of the Habsburg Empire, and her husband Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor. Non l'ho fatto apposta. [84], In 1783, the queen was busy with the creation of her "hamlet", a rustic retreat built by her favored architect, Richard Mique, according to the designs of the painter Hubert Robert. [142] Despite her dislike of him, she played a decisive role in his return to the office. Eventually, Marie Antoinette's reputation was no better than that of the favorites of previous kings. [141] She also played an important political, albeit not public, role between 1789 and 1791 when she had a complex set of relationships with several key actors of the early period of the French Revolution. Muoiono 913 persone, tra cui 276 bambini. On the other hand, both the king and the queen trusted Mme de Polignac completely, gave her a thirteen-room apartment in Versailles and paid her well. The onus of having caused the financial difficulties of the nation was placed on her shoulders by the revolutionary tribunal,[213] and under the new republican ideas of what it meant to be a member of a nation, her Austrian descent and continued correspondence with the competing nation made her a traitor. Vi resteranno, di fatto prigionieri, per 18 mesi, durante i quali la situazione peggiora di giorno in giorno. Mme de La Motte was sentenced for life to confinement in the Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, which also served as a prison for women. She blamed him for his support of the Revolution and did not regret his resignation in 1790.[143][144]. Per colpire la monarchia la rivoluzione fu costretta ad attaccare la regina, e nella regina la donna. In 1770 she was instrumental in ousting Étienne François, Duc de Choiseul, who had helped orchestrate the Franco-Austrian alliance and Marie Antoinette's marriage,[21] and in exiling his sister, the duchess de Gramont, one of Marie Antoinette's ladies-in-waiting. With time, Mirabeau would support the queen, even more, going as far as to suggest that Louis XVI "adjourn" to Rouen or Compiègne. Ha reputazione di persona frivola e superficiale, disposta a seguire ogni moda stravagante che giunga a Parigi. Il 1 luglio la regina viene separata dal figlio, rinchiuso in un'altra parte della prigione. Marie Antoinette (/ ˌ æ n t w ə ˈ n ɛ t, ˌ ɒ̃ t-/, French: [maʁi ɑ̃twanɛt] (); born Maria Antonia Josepha Johanna; 2 November 1755 – 16 October 1793) was the last queen of France before the French Revolution.She was born an archduchess of Austria and was the penultimate child and youngest daughter of Empress Maria Theresa and Emperor Francis I. All'alba del giorno seguente, è preso d'assalto il palazzo reale. It inspired Mozart's Le Nozze di Figaro, which premiered in Vienna on 1 May 1786. [51] Eight months later, in April 1778, it was suspected that the queen was pregnant, which was officially announced on 16 May. As to Fersen, despite the strong restriction imposed on the queen, he was able to see her a final time in February 1792.[170]. [131][132] "[49], Suggestions that Louis suffered from phimosis, which was relieved by circumcision, have been discredited. Alla corte di Parigi si mormora, infatti, che Maria Antonietta pensi solo a divertirsi, trascurando i propri doveri matrimoniali. The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle ended the war. On the way to the capital they were jeered and insulted by the people as never before. This gave the impression, partially justified, that the queen had sided with Austria against France. [6] The marriage between Infante Philip and Louise Élisabeth occurred in 1739 and eventually her older sister Infanta Maria Teresa Rafaela married the Dauphin in 1745. On 5 October, a crowd from Paris descended upon Versailles and forced the royal family to move to the Tuileries Palace in Paris, where they lived under a form of house arrest under the watch of Lafayette's Garde Nationale, while the Comte de Provence and his wife were allowed to reside in the Petit Luxembourg, where they remained until they went into exile on 20 June 1791. Among the accusations, many previously published in the libelles, were: orchestrating orgies in Versailles, sending millions of livres of treasury money to Austria, planning the massacre of the gardes françaises (National Guards) in 1792,[196] declaring her son to be the new king of France, and incest, a charge made by her son Louis Charles, pressured into doing so by the radical Jacques Hébert who controlled him.

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